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  • 문경콜걸◕24시출장샵♫문경연예인 안마방﹛문경연신내 마사지﹜W(문경안마방 입에 사정)ღ문경태국 마사지 토렌트┥문경소라넷 이벤트☠문경전주 마사지 추천⊙문경용산 안마방☾문경당진 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    온라인카지노
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    문경콜걸♖예약⇗문경연예인 안마방﹛문경베이징 안마방﹜☂(문경마사지 gif)◄문경안마방 녹음♧문경수안보 안마방⇐문경안마방 녹음⇠문경안마방 의자☾문경양평 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 무주부평 마사지 샵 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    문경콜걸╎예약금없는출장샵➠문경연예인 안마방﹛문경정왕 안마방﹜↺(문경군산 안마방)⇚문경마사지 중독☭문경얼굴 경락 마사지.문경마사지 단속⊥문경출장 만남 대행◈문경19금 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    문경콜걸▩예약φ문경연예인 안마방﹛문경동래 마사지﹜━(문경하노이 마사지)ユ문경안마방 청소년◎문경주갤 안마방☌문경상대보호구역┺문경문산 안마방♔문경턱근육 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대전출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    문경콜걸♥예약☜문경연예인 안마방﹛문경낙성대 마사지﹜☣(문경괌 안마방)◑문경안마방 vs 오피カ문경춘천 마사지 후기▨문경아쿠아 마사지 젤⇪문경안마방 에이즈↘문경안마방 사귄

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 원주계산동 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    문경콜걸➹예약금없는출장샵╁문경연예인 안마방﹛문경야동 실제﹜☺(문경마사지 크림)☺문경거유 마사지┵문경마사지 서양►문경정왕동 안마방⇌문경미금역 안마방✉문경태국 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 포항출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    문경콜걸문경안마방 나무

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    문경콜걸◑24시출장샵♪문경연예인 안마방﹛문경광주 마사지﹜▼(문경진해 마사지)╃문경안마방 수입╥문경제주도 안마방↺문경누루 마사지✈문경중국 마사지 가격✪문경도쿄 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 제천남친이랑 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    부산철산 안마방 광주출장샵 구례여관 아가씨
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 군산출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    문경콜걸↕예약금없는출장샵⇩문경연예인 안마방﹛문경안마방 초이스﹜✗(문경영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ)☣문경출장안마추천┵문경라페스타 안마방♔문경진주 마사지↕문경발 마사지█문경마사지 추천

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 김제부산마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    문경콜걸↠출장부르는법☇문경연예인 안마방﹛문경콜걸출장안마﹜▶(문경안마방 알바)┴문경부산 안마방 추천✿문경주안 여관➧문경속초 여관♣문경안마방 골뱅이◐문경합정 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 바카라사이트 .

    신안안마방 알바 썰
    홍성안마방 빨리싸면 카지노사이트 거창안마방 사귄
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    문경콜걸ミ출장부르는법➷문경연예인 안마방﹛문경카톡 출장﹜▥(문경포르치오 마사지)•문경안산 대딸방£문경부산 모텔✉문경온양 마사지╗문경구의 마사지╃문경신림 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    문경콜걸♜24시출장샵♠문경연예인 안마방﹛문경소라넷 안마방﹜➵(문경안마방 김치남)♣문경일본 마사지 품번➽문경24시간 안마방╖문경진주 마사지♦문경향남 마사지◑문경안마방 얼마냐

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 창원출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 진안마사지 근육 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    문경콜걸◘예약┏문경연예인 안마방﹛문경마사지 하다가﹜➴(문경여성전용 마사지 구인)ヒ문경일본 해수욕장 마사지↙문경강남 마사지α문경감성마사지 뜻↺문경부산 서면 안마방キ문경종로 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    문경콜걸⇄24시출장샵☁문경연예인 안마방﹛문경부산 모텔﹜☆(문경김포 마사지)┟문경마사지 샤워기╅문경일본마사지➻문경고잔동 마사지χ문경정왕역 안마방┒문경간석오거리 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 원주콜걸출장안마 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 거창안마방 어디까지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 전주출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    문경콜걸√24시출장샵♩문경연예인 안마방﹛문경여관 비용﹜┌(문경고잔동 마사지)⇩문경팔자주름 마사지ⓞ문경연예인 마사지⇗문경산본 안마방⇩문경용산구 안마방⇟문경눈 커지는 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 포항출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    문경콜걸W예약금없는출장샵ο문경연예인 안마방﹛문경팔 마사지﹜┐(문경신도림 마사지)╚문경장한평 안마방∷문경고딩 안마방┦문경마사지 효능웃문경대구 마사지☠문경해외 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    고령예약금 없는 출장
    대구출장안마 장성공유 마사지 광주출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    문경콜걸✌출장부르는법⇜문경연예인 안마방﹛문경오일 마사지﹜♞(문경군포 마사지)⊙문경국산_신작_안마방◙문경대딸 마사지メ문경마사지 볼✦문경하노이 마사지♠문경pj 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.문경콜걸문경마사지 사정♫문경신원동 마사지»(문경대구 모텔)문경fc2 남친 마사지╙문경서현역 안마방△문경속초 안마방✣문경전신 마사지ⓛ서울출장안마예약문경정자 안마방☜문경범일동 안마방♭‹문경회음부 마사지›문경아프리카tv 마사지↤문경창원 안마방 후기☏문경동탄 안마방☞문경대전 모텔 가격↷문경콜걸서울출장업소문경만남♣문경코 마사지♖{문경백석동 마사지}문경안마방 여자친구ル문경일산 마사지◥문경안마방 와꾸╦문경호치민 안마방☞문경야몽 마사지✉문경독산동 마사지✖[문경제주 안마방]문경마스카 안마방⊙문경출장맛사지▐문경한국 마사지 야동☺문경조건 카톡┧문경종아리 마사지☢문경안마방 사진♨「문경인천 출장 마사지」문경마사지 만화━문경전신 마사지☚ 문경태국 현지 마사지♚문경엘프 마사지✑문경의정부 모텔 추천⇤문경출장외국인→「문경일본식 안마방」문경여고생 마사지☼문경구미 아로마 마사지⇆문경홈 타이 마사지“문경여관 콜➺예약동두천신림 모텔예약문경안마방 단속 확률♩문경판상근 마사지☭{문경불알 마사지}문경김해 출장 마사지➹문경스웨 디시 마사지 란▄문경카카오출장☁문경마산 모텔 추천╔문경콜걸문경콜걸바카라사이트문경오피스 방문경로미 마사지문경대전 안마방 후기문경중국 우한 마사지문경콜걸문경대전 모텔 다방♬문경부산 안마방 가격┗「문경근육 마사지」문경안마방 애무♝문경마사지 대딸☪문경인천 안마방 후기↔문경안마방 avi的고흥호치민 리버티 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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